From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Nasa)
For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 38°52′59″N 77°0′59″W
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Motto: For the Benefit of All
Formed July 29, 1958 (54 years ago)
Preceding Agency NACA (1915–1958)
Jurisdiction United States government
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Annual budget US$17.8 billion (FY 2012)
See also NASA Budget
Agency executives Charles Bolden, administrator
Lori Garver, deputy administrator
Vision mission for an interstellar precursor spacecraft by NASA.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation’s civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research.
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been
Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create the innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
President Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958  with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, replacing its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The agency became operational on October 1, 1958.
Since that time, most U.S. space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. Most recently, NASA announced a new Space Launch System that it said would take the agency’s astronauts farther into space than ever before and provide the cornerstone for future human space exploration efforts by the U.S.
NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System, advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program, exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic missions such as New Horizons, and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs. NASA shares data with various national and international organizations such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite.
2 Space flight programs
2.1 Manned programs
2.1.1 X-15 rocket plane (1959–68)
2.1.2 Project Mercury (1959–63)
2.1.3 Project Gemini (1961–66)
2.1.4 Project Apollo (1961–72)
2.1.5 Skylab (1965–79)
2.1.6 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1972-75)
2.1.7 Space Shuttle program (1972–2011)
2.1.8 International Space Station (1993–present)
184.108.40.206 Commercial Resupply Services (2006-present)
220.127.116.11 Commercial Crew Program (2010–present)
2.1.9 Beyond Low Earth Orbit program (2010–present)
2.2 Unmanned programs
2.3 Recent and planned activities
3 Scientific research
3.1 Medicine in space
3.2 Ozone depletion
3.3 Salt evaporation and energy management
3.4 Earth Science
7 Current missions
8 See also
10 External links
Main article: The creation of NASA
1961 photo showing Dr. William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James Webb in background. They are discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1. In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–58). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The U.S. Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his advisers counseled more deliberate measures. This led to an agreement that a new federal agency mainly based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.
On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 46-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program (led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for ABMA) which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the U.S. Air Force and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.
Space flight programs
At launch control for the May 28, 1964, Saturn I SA-6 launch. Von Braun is at center.
Main article: List of NASA missions
The most notable NASA activities are its space flight programs, both manned and unmanned. The latter can be either independent, carrying scientific equipment, or supportive, testing equipment for manned flights. In the beginning, NASA’s missions focused on the space race with the Soviet Union, which won the first round, but later USA took the initiative and won the final race to the Moon. The unmanned missions have until now explored most of our solar system. They have also brought telescopes for deep space exploration into orbit around the Earth together with satellites for studying Earth itself.
The rocket planes experiments started by NACA was taken a step further by NASA which used them as support for spaceflights, the first of which was one-manned and launched by military rockets. When the attention turned to reaching the Moon, the solution chosen was complicated but also the most economical. Supportive projects, both manned and unmanned were introduced and bigger rockets together with spacecraft and moon lander developed. The Moon landing and end of the space race meant a reduction of NASA’s activities. Space stations of a more or less permanent nature, suggested already during the space race, were built and an international cooperation was introduced in an attempt to both bring nations together and at the same time share the high costs of space missions. In all, more than 100 manned missions have been made by NASA since 1958.
Neil Armstrong and X-15, 1960
X-15 rocket plane (1959–68)
Main article: North American X-15
The NACA XS-1 (Bell X-1) was followed by additional experimental vehicles, including the X-15 in cooperation with the US Air Force and US Navy. The design featured a slender fuselage with fairings along the side containing fuel and early computerized control systems. When the spacerace began the main objective was to get a person into space as soon as possible, therefore the simplest spacecraft that could be launched by existing rockets was favored. This led to the choice of a small capsule spacecraft while rocket plane proposals like a modified X-15 were turned down. Instead X-15 was used for development of techniques and equipment of value for the space missions. This included jets for changing the orientation of a spacecraft, space suits for astronauts and horizon definition for navigation. Nearly 200 flights were made between 1959 and 1968 allowing NASA to collect data vital not only to the spacerace but also the design of the Space Shuttle. The altitude record for X-15 was 354,200 feet (107.96 km).
Project Mercury (1959–63)
Main article: Project Mercury
Freedom 7, the first manned mission by NASA
Mercury-Redstone 3 launch on May 5, 1961
Flight profile: launch, apogee (117 miles), reentry and landing in water
Project Mercury started in 1958 as NASA’s inheritance of the U.S. Air Force’s Man In Space Soonest program objective to make the first single-astronaut flights into Earth orbit. The first seven astronauts were selected among candidates from the Navy, Air Force and Marine test pilot programs. On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American in space aboard Freedom 7, launched by a Redstone booster on a 15-minute ballistic (suborbital) flight. John Glenn became the first American to be launched into orbit by an Atlas launch vehicle on February 20, 1962 aboard Friendship 7. Glenn completed three orbits, after which three more orbital flights were made, culminating in L. Gordon Cooper’s 22-orbit flight Faith 7, May 15–16, 1963.
The Soviet Union (USSR) competed with Mercury in what was called the Space Race, with its own single-pilot spacecraft, Vostok. They bested the U.S. in getting humans into space soonest, by launching cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into a single Earth orbit aboard in Vostok 1 in April 1961, one month before Shepard’s flight. In August 1962, they achieved an almost four-day record flight with Andriyan Nikolayev aboard Vostok 3, and also conducted a concurrent Vostok 4 mission carrying Pavel Popovich. The Soviet lead, perceived by the U.S public as most acute in May 1962, motivated President John F. Kennedy to ask the Congress to commit to a program to land a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s, which effectively launched the Apollo program.
Project Gemini (1961–66)
The first rendezvous of two spacecraft, achieved by Gemini 6 and 7
Main article: Project Gemini
Based on studies to grow the Mercury spacecraft capabilities to long-duration flights, developing space rendezvous techniques, and precision Earth landing, Project Gemini was started as a two-man program in 1962 to overcome the Soviets’ lead and to support the Apollo program, adding extravehicular activity (EVA) and docking to its objectives. The first manned Gemini flight, Gemini 3, was flown by Gus Grissom and John Young on March 23, 1965. Nine missions followed in 1965 and 1966, demonstrating an endurance mission of nearly fourteen days, rendezvous, docking, and practical EVA, and gathering medical data on the effects of weightlessness on humans.
Under the direction of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, the USSR competed with Gemini by converting their Vostok spacecraft into a two- or three-man Voskhod. They succeeded in launching two manned flights before Gemini’s first flight, achieving a three-cosmonaut flight in 1963 and the first EVA in 1964. After this, the program was then canceled, and Gemini caught up while spacecraft designer Sergei Korolev developed the Soyuz spacecraft, their answer to Apollo.
Spacecraft and rocket comparison including Apollo (biggest), Gemini and Mercury. The Saturn IB and Mercury-Redstone rockets are left out
Project Apollo (1961–72)
Main article: Apollo program
The Apollo program was one of the most expensive American scientific programs ever. It is estimated to have cost $200 billion in present-day US dollars. (In comparison, the Manhattan Project cost roughly $25.5 billion, accounting for inflation.) It used the Saturn rockets as launch vehicles, which were far bigger than the rockets built for previous projects. The spacecraft was also bigger; it had two main parts, the combined command and service module (CSM) and the lunar landing module (LM). The LM was to be left on the Moon and only the command module (CM) containing the three astronauts would eventually return to Earth.
Buzz Aldrin on the moon, 1969
The second manned mission, Apollo 8, brought astronauts for the first time in a flight around the Moon in December 1968. Shortly before, the Soviets had sent an unmanned spacecraft around the Moon. On the next two missions docking maneuvers that were needed for the Moon landing were practiced and then finally the Moon landing was made on the Apollo 11 mission in July 1969.
The first person to stand on the Moon was Neil Armstrong, who was followed by Buzz Aldrin while Michael Collins orbited above. Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. Throughout these six Apollo spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon. These missions returned a wealth of scientific data and 381.7 kilograms (842 lb) of lunar samples. Topics covered by experiments performed included soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismology, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind. The Moon landing marked the end of the space race and as a gesture, Armstrong mentioned mankind when he stepped down on the Moon.
Earthrise, as seen from Apollo 8, December 24, 1968. It has been called one of the most influential photos ever taken
Apollo set major milestones in human spaceflight. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit, and landing humans on another celestial body. Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while Apollo 17 marked the last moonwalk and the last manned mission beyond low Earth orbit. The program spurred advances in many areas of technology peripheral to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers. Apollo sparked interest in many fields of engineering and left many physical facilities and machines developed for the program as landmarks. Many objects and artifacts from the program are on display at various locations throughout the world, notably at the Smithsonian’s Air and Space Museums.
Skylab space station, 1974
Main article: Skylab
Skylab was the United States’ first and only independently built space station. Conceived in 1965 as a workshop to be constructed in space from a spent Saturn IB upper stage, the 169,950 lb (77,088 kg) station was constructed on Earth and launched on May 14, 1973 atop the first two stages of a Saturn V, into a 235-nautical-mile (435 km) orbit inclined at 50° to the equator. Damaged during launch by the loss of its thermal protection and one electricity-generating solar panel, it was repaired to functionality by its first crew. It was occupied for a total of 171 days by 3 successive crews in 1973 and 1974. It included a laboratory for studying the effects of microgravity, and a solar observatory. NASA planned to have a Space Shuttle dock with it, and elevate Skylab to a higher safe altitude, but the Shuttle was not ready for flight before Skylab’s re-entry on July 11, 1979.
To save cost, NASA used one of the Saturn V rockets originally earmarked for a canceled Apollo mission to launch the Skylab. Apollo spacecraft were used for transporting astronauts to and from the Skylab. Three three-man crews stayed aboard the station for periods of 28, 59, and 84 days. Skylab’s habitable volume was 11,290 cubic feet (320 m3), which was 30.7 times bigger than that of the Apollo Command Module.
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1972-75)
Apollo-Soyuz crews with models of spacecraft, 1975
Main article: Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
On May 24, 1972, US President Richard M. Nixon and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin signed an agreement calling for a joint manned space mission, and declaring intent for all future international manned spacecraft to be capable of docking with each other. This authorized the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), involving the rendezvous and docking in Earth orbit of a surplus Apollo Command/Service Module with a Soyuz spacecraft. The mission took place in July 1975. This was the last US manned space flight until the first orbital flight of the Space Shuttle in April 1981.
The mission included both joint and separate scientific experiments, and provided useful engineering experience for future joint US–Russian space flights, such as the Shuttle–Mir Program and the International Space Station.
Space Shuttle program (1972–2011)
Main article: Space Shuttle program
Discovery liftoff, 2008
Mission profile. Left: launch, top: orbit (cargo bay open), right: reentry and landing
The Space Shuttle became the major focus of NASA in the late 1970s and the 1980s. Planned as a frequently launchable and mostly reusable vehicle, four space shuttle orbiters were built by 1985. The first to launch, Columbia, did so on April 12, 1981, the 20th anniversary of the first space flight by Yuri Gagarin.
Its major components were a spaceplane orbiter with an external fuel tank and two solid fuel launch rockets at its side. The external tank, which was bigger than the spacecraft itself, was the only component that was not reused. The shuttle could orbit in altitudes of 185–643 km (115–400 miles) and carry a maximum payload (to low orbit) of 24,400 kg (54,000 lb). Missions could last from 5 to 17 days and crews could be from 2 to 8 astronauts.
On 20 missions (1983–98) the Space Shuttle carried Spacelab, designed in cooperation with the ESA. Spacelab was not designed for independent orbital flight, but remained in the Shuttle’s cargo bay as the astronauts entered and left it through an airlock. Another famous series of missions were the launch and later successful repair of the Hubble space telescope 1990 and 1993
In 1995 Russian-American interaction resumed with the Shuttle-Mir missions (1995–1998). Once more an American vehicle docked with a Russian craft, this time a full-fledged space station. This cooperation has continued with Russia and the United States as the two of the biggest partners in the largest space station built: the International Space Station (ISS). The strength of their cooperation on this project was even more evident when NASA began relying on Russian launch vehicles to service the ISS during the two-year grounding of the shuttle fleet following the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
The Shuttle fleet lost two orbiters and 14 astronauts in two disasters: Challenger in 1986, and Columbia in 2003. While the 1986 loss was mitigated by building the Space Shuttle Endeavour from replacement parts, NASA did not build another orbiter to replace the second loss. NASA’s Space Shuttle program had 135 missions when the program ended with the successful landing of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21, 2011. The program spanned 30 years with over 300 astronauts sent into space.
International Space Station (1993–present)
Main article: International Space Station
The International Space Station, 2011
The International Space Station (ISS) combines NASA’s Space Station Freedom project with the Soviet/Russian Mir-2 station, the European Columbus station, and the Japanese Kibō laboratory module. NASA originally planned in the 1980s to develop Freedom alone, but US budget constraints led to the merger of these projects into a single multi-national program in 1993, managed by NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The station consists of pressurized modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components, which have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, and the US Space Shuttles. It is currently being assembled in Low Earth Orbit. The on-orbit assembly began in 1998, the completion of the US Orbital Segment occurred in 2011 and the completion of the Russian Orbital Segment is expected by 2016. The ownership and use of the space station is established in intergovernmental treaties and agreements which divide the station into two areas and allow Russia to retain full ownership of the Russian Orbital Segment (with the exception of Zarya), with the US Orbital Segment allocated between the other international partners.
The STS-131 (light blue) and Expedition 23 (dark blue) crew members in April 2010.
Long duration missions to the ISS are referred to as ISS Expeditions. Expedition crew members typically spend approximately six months on the ISS. The initial expedition crew size was three, temporarily decreased to two following the Columbia disaster. Since May 2009, expedition crew size has been six crew members. Crew size is expected to be increased to seven, the number the ISS was designed for, once the Commercial Crew Program becomes operational. The ISS has been continuously occupied for the past 12 years and 167 days, having exceeded the previous record held by Mir; and has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different nations. The station can be seen from the Earth with the naked eye and, as of 2013, is the largest artificial satellite in Earth orbit with a mass and volume greater than that of any previous space station. The Soyuz spacecraft delivers crew members, stays docked for their half-year long missions and then returns them home. Several uncrewed cargo spacecraft service the ISS, they are the Russian Progress spacecraft which has done so since 2000, the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) since 2008, the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) since 2009 and the American Dragon spacecraft since 2012. The Space Shuttle, before its retirement, was also used for cargo transfer and would often switch out expedition crew members, although it did not have the capability to remain docked for the duration of their stay. Until another US manned spacecraft is ready, crew members will travel to and from the International Space Station exclusively aboard the Soyuz. The highest number of people occupying the ISS has been thirteen; this occurred three times during the late Shuttle ISS assembly missions.
The ISS program is expected to continue until at least 2020 but may be extended until 2028 or possibly beyond that.
Commercial Resupply Services (2006-present)
Main article: Commercial Resupply Services
The Dragon is seen being berthed to the ISS in May 2012
Artist’s rendering of the Standard variant of Cygnus
The development of the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) vehicles began in 2006 with the purpose of creating American commercially operated uncrewed cargo vehicles to service the ISS. The development of these vehicles was under a fixed price milestone-based program, meaning that each company that received a funded award had a list of milestones with a dollar value attached to them that they didn’t receive until after they had successful completed the milestone. Private companies were also required to have some “skin in the game” which refers raising an unspecified amount of private investment for their proposal.
On 23 December 2008, NASA awarded Commercial Resupply Services contracts to SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation. SpaceX uses its Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft. Orbital Sciences will use its Antares rocket and Cygnus spacecraft. The first Dragon resupply mission occurred in May 2012. The first Cygnus resupply mission is expected to occur in mid-2013. The CRS program now provides for all America’s ISS cargo needs; with the exception of a few vehicle-specific payloads that are delivered on the European ATV and the Japanese HTV.
Commercial Crew Program (2010–present)
Main article: Commercial Crew Development
The Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program was initiated in 2010 with the purpose of creating American commercially operated crewed spacecraft capable of delivering at least four crew members to the ISS, staying docked for 180 days and then returning them back to Earth. It is hoped that these vehicles could also transport non-NASA customers to private space stations such those planned by Bigelow Aerospace. Like COTS, CCDev is also a fixed price milestone-based developmental program that requires some private investment.
In 2010, NASA announced the winners of the first phase of the program, a total of $50 million was divided among five American companies to foster research and development into human spaceflight concepts and technologies in the private sector. In 2011, the winners of the second phase of the program were announced, $270 million was divided among four companies. In 2012, the winners of the third phase of the program were announced, NASA provided $1.1 billion divided among three companies to further develop their crew transportation systems. This phase of the CCDev program is expected to last from 3 June 2012 to 31 May 2014. The winners of this latest round were SpaceX’s Dragon planned to be launched on a Falcon 9, Boeing’s CST-100 planned to be launched on an Atlas V and Sierra Nevada’s Dream Chaser, which is also planned to be launched on an Atlas V. NASA will most likely only choose one provider for the Commercial Crew program, this vehicle is expected by NASA to become operational around 2017.
The unmanned variant of Dragon is seen approaching the ISS
Computer rendering of CST-100 in orbit
Dream Chaser atmospheric test article
Beyond Low Earth Orbit program (2010–present)
Artist’s rendering of the 70 mt variant of SLS launching Orion
For missions beyond low Earth orbit (BLEO), NASA has been directed to develop the Space Launch System (SLS), a Saturn-V class rocket, and the two to six person, beyond low Earth orbit spacecraft, Orion. In February 2010, President Barack Obama’s administration proposed eliminating public funds for the Constellation program and shifting greater responsibility of servicing the ISS to private companies. During speech at the Kennedy Space Center on April 15, 2010, Obama proposed the design selection of the new heavy-lift vehicle (HLV) that would replace the formerly planned Ares V should be delayed until 2015. He also proposed that the United States should send a crew to an asteroid in the 2020s and send a crew to Mars orbit in the mid-2030s. The U.S. Congress drafted the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and President Obama signed it into law on October 11 of that year. The authorization act officially canceled the Constellation program.
Orion spacecraft design as of January 2013
The Authorization Act required a new HLV design to be chosen within 90 days of its passing and for the construction of a beyond low earth orbit spacecraft. The authorization act called this new HLV the Space Launch System. The authorization act also required a beyond low Earth orbit spacecraft to be developed, the Orion spacecraft, which was being developed as part of the Constellation program, was chosen to fulfill this role. The Space Launch System is planned to launch both Orion and other necessary hardware for missions beyond low Earth orbit. The SLS is to be upgraded over time with more powerful versions. The initial capability of SLS is required to be able to lift 70 mt into LEO, it is then planned to be upgraded to 105 mt and then eventually to 130 mt.
Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1), an unmanned test flight of Orion’s crew module, is planned to be launched in 2014 on a Delta IV Heavy rocket. Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) is the unmanned initial launch of SLS that would also send Orion on a circumlunar trajectory, which is planned for 2017. The first manned flight of Orion and SLS, Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) is to launch between 2019 and 2021; it is a 10-14 day mission planned to place a crew of four into Lunar orbit. As of March 2012, the destination for EM-3 and the intermediate focus for this new program is still in-flux.
Deep space mission deployed by Shuttle, 1989
Main article: Unmanned NASA missions
More than 1,000 unmanned missions have been designed to explore the Earth and the solar system. Besides exploration, communication satellites have also been launched by NASA. The missions have been launched directly from Earth or from orbiting space shuttles, which could either deploy the satellite itself, or with a rocket stage to take it farther.
The first US unmanned satellite was Explorer 1, which started as an ABMA/JPL project during the early space race. It was launched in January 1958, two months after Sputnik. At the creation of NASA the Explorer project was transferred to this agency and still continues to this day. Its missions have been focusing on the Earth and the Sun, measuring magnetic fields and the solar wind, among other aspects. A more recent Earth mission, not related to the Explorer program, was the Hubble Space Telescope, which as mentioned above was brought into orbit in 1990.
The inner Solar System has been made the goal of at least four unmanned programs. The first was Mariner in the 1960s and 70s, which made multiple visits to Venus and Mars and one to Mercury. Probes launched under the Mariner program were also the first to make a planetary flyby (Mariner 2), to take the first pictures from another planet (Mariner 4), the first planetary orbiter (Mariner 9), and the first to make a gravity assist maneuver (Mariner 10). This is a technique where the satellite takes advantage of the gravity and velocity of planets to reach its destination.
The first successful landing on Mars was made by Viking 1 in 1976. Twenty years later a rover was landed on Mars by Mars Pathfinder.
Uranus by Voyager 2, 1986
Outside Mars, Jupiter was first visited by Pioneer 10 in 1973. More than 20 years later Galileo sent a probe into the planet’s atmosphere, and became the first spacecraft to orbit the planet. Pioneer 11 became the first spacecraft to visit Saturn in 1979, with Voyager 2 making the first (and so far only) visits to Uranus and Neptune in 1986 and 1989, respectively. The first spacecraft to leave the solar system was Pioneer 10 in 1983. For a time it was the most distant spacecraft, but it has since been surpassed by both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2.
Pioneers 10 and 11 and both Voyager probes carry messages from the Earth to extraterrestrial life. A problem with deep space travel is communication. For instance, it takes about 3 hours at present for a radio signal to reach the New Horizons spacecraft at a point more than halfway to Pluto. Contact with Pioneer 10 was lost in 2003. Both Voyager probes continue to operate as they explore the outer boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space.
On November 26, 2011, NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission was successfully launched for Mars. Curiosity successfully landed on Mars on August 6, 2012, and subsequently began its search for evidence of past or present life on Mars.
Recent and planned activities
The Orion spacecraft is intended to be used for beyond low Earth orbit missions, shown here is the ground test article
Curiosity’s wheel on Mars, 2012
NASA’s ongoing investigations include in-depth surveys of Mars and Saturn and studies of the Earth and the Sun. Other active spacecraft missions are MESSENGER for Mercury, New Horizons (for Jupiter, Pluto, and beyond), and Dawn for the asteroid belt. NASA continued to support in situ exploration beyond the asteroid belt, including Pioneer and Voyager traverses into the unexplored trans-Pluto region, and Gas Giant orbiters Galileo (1989–2003), Cassini (1997–), and Juno (2011–).
The New Horizons mission to Pluto was launched in 2006 and is currently en route for a Pluto flyby in 2015. The probe received a gravity assist from Jupiter in February 2007, examining some of Jupiter’s inner moons and testing on-board instruments during the flyby. On the horizon of NASA’s plans is the MAVEN spacecraft as part of the Mars Scout Program to study the atmosphere of Mars.
On December 4, 2006, NASA announced it was planning a permanent moon base. The goal was to start building the moon base by 2020, and by 2024, have a fully functional base that would allow for crew rotations and in-situ resource utilization. However in 2009, the Augustine Committee found the program to be on a “unsustainable trajectory.” In 2010, President Barack Obama halted existing plans, including the Moon base, and directed a generic focus on manned missions to asteroids and Mars, as well as extending support for the International Space Station.
In September 2011, NASA announced the start of the Space Launch System program to develop a human-rated heavy lift vehicle. The Space Launch System is intended to launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and other elements towards the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and one day Mars. The Orion MPCV is planned for an unmanned test launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket around late 2013.
Celebration erupts at NASA with the successful landing of Curiosity on Mars
On August 6, 2012, NASA landed the rover Curiosity on Mars. On August 27, 2012, Curiosity transmitted the first pre-recorded message from the surface of Mars back to Earth, made by Administrator Charlie Bolden:
Hello. This is Charlie Bolden, NASA Administrator, speaking to you via the broadcast capabilities of the Curiosity Rover, which is now on the surface of Mars. Since the beginning of time, humankind’s curiosity has led us to constantly seek new life…new possibilities just beyond the horizon. I want to congratulate the men and women of our NASA family as well as our commercial and government partners around the world, for taking us a step beyond to Mars. This is an extraordinary achievement. Landing a rover on Mars is not easy – others have tried – only America has fully succeeded. The investment we are making…the knowledge we hope to gain from our observation and analysis of Gale Crater, will tell us much about the possibility of life on Mars as well as the past and future possibilities for our own planet. Curiosity will bring benefits to Earth and inspire a new generation of scientists and explorers, as it prepares the way for a human mission in the not too distant future. Thank you.
For technologies funded or otherwise supported by NASA, see NASA spin-off technologies.
A Moon rock returned by Apollo 17 crew
Mars rock, viewed by a rover
Medicine in space
Main article: Space medicine
A variety of large-scale medical studies are being conducted in space by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). Prominent among these is the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity Study, in which astronauts (including former ISS Commanders Leroy Chiao and Gennady Padalka) perform ultrasound scans under the guidance of remote experts to diagnose and potentially treat hundreds of medical conditions in space. Usually there is no physician on board the International Space Station, and diagnosis of medical conditions is challenging. Astronauts are susceptible to a variety of health risks including decompression sickness, barotrauma, immunodeficiencies, loss of bone and muscle, orthostatic intolerance due to volume loss, sleep disturbances, and radiation injury. Ultrasound offers a unique opportunity to monitor these conditions in space. This study’s techniques are now being applied to cover professional and Olympic sports injuries as well as ultrasound performed by non-expert operators in populations such as medical and high school students. It is anticipated that remote guided ultrasound will have application on Earth in emergency and rural care situations, where access to a trained physician is often rare.
In 1975, NASA was directed by legislation to research and monitor the upper atmosphere. This led to Upper Atmosphere Research Program and later the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites in the 1990s to monitor ozone depletion. The first comprehensive worldwide measurements were obtained in 1978 with the Nimbus 7 satellite and NASA scientists at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies.
Salt evaporation and energy management
In one of the nation’s largest restoration projects, NASA technology helps state and federal government reclaim 15,100 acres (61 km2) of salt evaporation ponds in South San Francisco Bay. Satellite sensors are used by scientists to study the effect of salt evaporation on local ecology.
NASA has started Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation Program as an agency-wide program directed to prevent pollution and reduce energy and water utilization. It helps to ensure that NASA meets its federal stewardship responsibilities for the environment.
Understanding of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment is the main objective of NASA’s Earth Science. NASA currently has more than a dozen Earth science spacecraft/instruments in orbit studying all aspects of the Earth system (oceans, land, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere), with several more planned for launch in the next few years.
NASA is working in cooperation with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal is to produce worldwide solar resource maps with great local detail. NASA was also one of the main participants in the evaluation innovative technologies for the clean up of the sources for dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). On April 6, 1999, the agency signed The Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) along with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and USAF authorizing all the above organizations to conduct necessary tests at the John F. Kennedy Space center. The main purpose was to evaluate two innovative in-situ remediation technologies, thermal removal and oxidation destruction of DNAPLs. National Space Agency made a partnership with Military Services and Defense Contract Management Agency named the “Joint Group on Pollution Prevention”. The group is working on reduction or elimination of hazardous materials or processes.
On May 8, 2003, Environmental Protection Agency recognized NASA as the first federal agency to directly use landfill gas to produce energy at one of its facilities—the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
Main article: List of NASA Administrators
Charles F. Bolden, Jr., Administrator
Lori Garver, Deputy Administrator
The administrator is the highest-ranking NASA official and serves as the senior space science adviser to the President of the United States. The administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC and provides overall guidance and direction to the agency.
The first Administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan; during his term he brought together the disparate projects in space development research in the US.
Some administrators like Richard H. Truly (administrator 1989–1992) have been astronauts themselves. Among others he piloted Space Shuttle Columbia in 1981 on its second flight and later supervised the rebuilding of the shuttle program after the disaster of Challenger in 1986
On May 24, 2009, President Obama announced the nomination of Charles Bolden as NASA administrator, and Lori Garver as deputy administrator. Bolden was confirmed by the US Senate on July 15, 2009 as the twelfth administrator of NASA. Lori Garver was confirmed as NASA’s deputy administrator.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory complex in Pasadena, California
Vehicle Assembly and Launch Control at Kennedy Space Center
Main article: NASA facilities
NASA’s facilities are research, construction and communication centers to help its missions. Some facilities serve more than one application for historic or administrative reasons. NASA also operates a short-line railroad at the Kennedy Space Center and own special aircraft for instance two Boeing 747 which were used for transport of the Space Shuttle orbiter.
John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), is one of the best-known NASA facilities. It has been the launch site for every United States human space flight since 1968. Although such flights are currently on pause, KSC continues to manage and operate unmanned rocket launch facilities for America’s civilian space program from three pads at the adjoining Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
Another major facility is Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama at which the Saturn 5 rocket and Skylab were developed. The JPL, mentioned above, was together with ABMA one of the agencies behind Explorer 1, the first American space mission.
NASA’s budget 1962–2014 as % of federal budget peaking 1966
Main article: Budget of NASA
NASA’s budget has generally been approximately 1% of the federal budget from the early 1970s on, but briefly peaked to approximately 3.3% in 1966 during the Apollo program. Recent public perception of the NASA budget has been shown to be significantly different from reality; a 1997 poll indicated that Americans responded on average that 20% of the federal budget went to NASA.
The percentage of federal budget that NASA has been allocated has been steadily dropping since the Apollo program and as of 2012 the NASA budget is estimated to be 0.48% of the federal budget. In a March 2012 meeting of the United States Senate Science Committee, Neil deGrasse Tyson testified that “Right now, NASA’s annual budget is half a penny on your tax dollar. For twice that—a penny on a dollar—we can transform the country from a sullen, dispirited nation, weary of economic struggle, to one where it has reclaimed its 20th century birthright to dream of tomorrow.” Inspired by Tyson’s advocacy and remarks, the Penny4NASA nonprofit was founded in 2012 by John Zeller and advocates the doubling of NASA’s budget to one percent of the Federal Budget, or one “penny on the dollar.”
Various nebula observed from a NASA space telescope
Examples of some current NASA missions:
2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars orbiter
Cassini, Saturn orbiter
Chandra X-ray Telescope
Curiosity rover (Mars Science Laboratory), Mars rover
Dawn, asteroid orbiter
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
International Space Station
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Lunar orbiter
MESSENGER, Mercury orbiter
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars orbiter
New Horizons, Pluto flyby
Opportunity rover, Mars rover
Solar Dynamics Observatory
Spitzer Space Telescope
Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission
Government of the United States portal
Aerospace Education Services Project
Astronomy Picture of the Day
Buran, Soviet space shuttle
Department of Defense Manned Space Flight Support Office
Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation)
List of aerospace engineering topics
List of NASA aircraft
List of NASA missions
List of rockets used by NASA
NASA Acquisition Internet Service
NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program
NASA awards and decorations
NASA RealWorld-InWorld Engineering Design Challenge
NASA Research Park
Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee
Saturn (rocket family)
Scientific research on the ISS
Small Explorer program
Space policy of the Barack Obama administration
Starlite, a MMO game by NASA
Timeline of Solar System exploration
Vision for Space Exploration
^ Lale Tayla and Figen Bingul (2007). “NASA stands “for the benefit of all.”—Interview with NASA’s Dr. Süleyman Gokoglu”. The Light Millennium. Retrieved September 29, 1954.
^ U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, NACA. Centennialofflight.gov. Retrieved on 2011-11-03.
^ “NASA workforce profile”. NASA. January 11, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
^ Teitel, Amy (December 2, 2011). “A Mixed Bag for NASA’s 2012 Budget”. DiscoveryNews. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
^ “NASA Strategic Plan, 2011”. NASA Headquarters.
^ Dwight D. Eisenhower and Science & Technology, (2008).Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, Source.
^ NASA (2005). “The National Aeronautics and Space Act”. NASA. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
^ Lucas, William R. (1989-07). From naca to nasa. NASA. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-16-004259-1. Retrieved May 27, 2009. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
^ Release:11-301, NASA (September 14, 2011). “NASA Announces Design For New Deep Space Exploration System”. NASA. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
^ VideoLibrary, C-Span (September 14, 2011). “Press Conference on the Future of NASA Space Program”. c-span.org. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
^ “NASA Unveils New Rocket Design”. The New York Times. September 14, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
^ Netting, Ruth (June 30, 2009). “Earth—NASA Science”. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ Netting, Ruth (January 8, 2009). “Heliophysics—NASA Science”. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ Netting, Ruth (January 8, 2009). “Planets—NASA Science”. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ Netting, Ruth (July 13, 2009). “Astrophysics—NASA Science”. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ “The NACA, NASA, and the Supersonic-Hypersonic Frontier”. NASA. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ Supplemental military construction authorization (Air Force).: Hearings, Eighty-fifth Congress, second session, on H.R. 9739.. January 21, 24, 1958.
^ a b c “T. KEITH GLENNAN”. NASA. August 4, 2006. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ Executive Order 10849 (Wikisource)
^ von Braun, Werner (1963). “Recollections of Childhood: Early Experiences in Rocketry as Told by Werner Von Braun 1963”. MSFC History Office. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ Van Atta, Richard (April 10, 2008). 50 years of Bridging the Gap (PDF). Archived from the original on February 24, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ “Summary of United States Human Space Flight”. NASA. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ a b Aerospaceweb, North American X-15. Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved on 2011-11-03.
^ Encyclopedia Astronautica, Project 7969, retrieved 2011-10-17
^ NASA, Project Mercury Overview, retrieved 2011-10-17
^ a b NASA, X-15 Hypersonic Research Program, retrieved 2011-10-17
^ NASA, Mercury-Redstone 3 (18), retrieved 2011-10-14
^ Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1989). 11-4 Shepard’s Ride. In Woods, David; Gamble, Chris. “This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury” (url). Published as NASA Special Publication-4201 in the NASA History Series (NASA). Retrieved July 14, 2009.
^ Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1989). 13-4 An American in Orbit. In Woods, David; Gamble, Chris. “This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury” (url). Published as NASA Special Publication-4201 in the NASA History Series (NASA). Retrieved July 14, 2009.
^ “Mercury Manned Flights Summary”. NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
^ “NASA history, Gagarin”. NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
^ Gamble, Chris; James M. Grimwood (December 31, 2002). “10-1 The Last Hurdle”. On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini (url). NASA. ISBN 978-0-16-067157-9. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2009. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
^ Gamble, Chris; James M. Grimwood (December 31, 2002). “12-5 Two Weeks in a Spacecraft”. On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini. NASA. ISBN 978-0-16-067157-9. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2009. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
^ Gamble, Chris; James M. Grimwood (December 31, 2002). “13-3 An Alternative Target”. On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini. NASA. ISBN 978-0-16-067157-9. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2009. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
^ a b Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
^ Butts, Glenn; Linton, Kent (April 28, 2009). “The Joint Confidence Level Paradox: A History of Denial, 2009 NASA Cost Symposium”. pp. 25–26.
^ Nichols, Kenneth David (1987). The Road to Trinity: A Personal Account of How America’s Nuclear Policies Were Made, pp 34–35. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-06910-X. OCLC 15223648.
^ “Saturn V”. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
^ “Apollo 8: The First Lunar Voyage”. NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2003). The Soviet Space Race with Apollo. Gainsville: University Press of Florida. pp. 654–656. ISBN 0-8130-2628-8.
^ “Apollo 9: Earth Orbital trials”. NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
^ “Apollo 10: The Dress Rehearsal”. NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
^ “The First Landing”. NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
^ Chaikin, Andrew (March 16, 1998). A Man on the Moon. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-027201-7. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
^ The Phrase Finder:…a giant leap for mankind, retrieved 2011-10-01
^ 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11, Manned Apollo Missions. NASA, 1999.
^ a b c Belew, Leland F., ed. (1977). Skylab Our First Space Station—NASA report (PDF). NASA. NASA-SP-400. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ a b Benson, Charles Dunlap and William David Compton. Living and Working in Space: A History of Skylab. NASA publication SP-4208.
^ Gatland, Kenneth (1976). Manned Spacecraft, Second Revision. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. p. 247. ISBN 0-02-542820-9.
^ Grinter, Kay (April 23, 2003). “The Apollo Soyuz Test Project”. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ NASA, Shuttle-MIR history, retrieved 2011-10-15
^ Bernier, Serge (May 27, 2002). Space Odyssey: The First Forty Years of Space Exploration. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81356-3. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
^ Encyclopedia Astronautica, Vostok 1, retrieved 2011-10-18
^ a b NASA, Shuttle Basics, retrieved 2011-10-18
^ Encyclopedia Astronautica, Shuttle, retrieved 2011-10-18
^ Encyclopedia Astronautica, Spacelab. Retrieved October 20, 2011
^ Encyclopedia Astronautica, HST. Retrieved October 20, 2011
^ a b Watson, Traci (January 8, 2008). “Shuttle delays endanger space station”. USA Today. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ “NASA’s Last Space Shuttle Flight Lifts Off From Cape Canaveral”. KHITS Chicago. July 8, 2011.
^ a b John E. Catchpole (17 June 2008). The International Space Station: Building for the Future. Springer-Praxis. ISBN 978-0-387-78144-0.
^ “Human Spaceflight and Exploration—European Participating States”. European Space Agency (ESA). 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
^ Gary Kitmacher (2006). Reference Guide to the International Space Station. Canada: Apogee Books. pp. 71–80. ISBN 978-1-894959-34-6. ISSN 1496-6921.
^ Gerstenmaier, William (2011-10-12). “Statement of William H. Gerstenmaier Associate Administrator for HEO NASA before the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics Committee on Science, Space and Technology U. S. House of Representatives”. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
^ “The Russian ISS segment is to be completed by 2016”. Air Transport Observer. 11 January2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
^ a b “ISS Intergovernmental Agreement”. European Space Agency (ESA). 19 April 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
^ “Memorandum of Understanding Between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America and the Russian Space Agency Concerning Cooperation on the Civil International Space Station”. NASA. 29 January 1998. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
^ Zak, Anatoly (15 October 2008). “Russian Segment: Enerprise”. RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ “ISS Fact sheet: FS-2011-06-009-JSC”. NASA. 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
^ “MCB Joint Statement Representing Common Views on the Future of the ISS”. International Space Station Multilateral Coordination Board. 3 February 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
^ Leone, Dan (20 June 2012). “Wed, 20 June, 2012 NASA Banking on Commercial Crew To Grow ISS Population”. Space News. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
^ “Nations Around the World Mark 10th Anniversary of International Space Station”. NASA. 17 November 2008. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
^ Boyle, Rebecca (11 November 2010). “The International Space Station Has Been Continuously Inhabited for Ten Years Today”. Popular Science. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
^ International Space Station, Retrieved October 20, 2011
^ Chow, Denise (17 November 2011). “U.S. Human Spaceflight Program Still Strong, NASA Chief Says”. Space.com. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
^ Potter, Ned (17 July 2009). “Space Shuttle, Station Dock: 13 Astronauts Together”. ABC News. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
^ Leone, Dan (29 March 2012). “Sen. Mikulski Questions NASA Commercial Crew Priority”. Space News. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
^ “NASA Selects Crew and Cargo Transportation to Orbit Partners” (Press release). NASA. 2006-08-18. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
^ a b “Moving Forward: Commercial Crew Development Building the Next Era in Spaceflight”. Rendezvous. NASA. 2010. pp. 10–17. Retrieved February 14, 2011. “Just as in the COTS projects, in the CCDev project we have fixed-price, pay-for-performance milestones,” Thorn said. “There’s no extra money invested by NASA if the projects cost more than projected.”
^ McAlister, Phil (October 2010). “The Case for Commercial Crew”. NASA. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
^ “NASA Awards Space Station Commercial Resupply Services Contracts”. NASA, December 23, 2008.
^ “Space Exploration Technologies Corporation – Press”. Spacex.com. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
^ Clark, Stephen (2 June 2012). “NASA expects quick start to SpaceX cargo contract”. SpaceFlightNow. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
^ “Worldwide launch schedule”. spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
^ “SpaceX/NASA Discuss launch of Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon capsule”. NASA. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
^ a b Berger, Brian (2011-02-01). “Biggest CCDev Award Goes to Sierra Nevada”. Imaginova Corp. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
^ Morring, Frank (10 October 2012). “Boeing Gets Most Money With Smallest Investment”. Aviation Week. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
^ Dean, James. “NASA awards $270 million for commercial crew efforts”. space.com, April 18, 2011.
^ a b “NASA Announces Next Steps in Effort to Launch Americans from U.S. Soil”. NASA. August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
^ Five Vehicles Vie For Future Of U.S. Human Spaceflight
^ “Recent Developments in NASA’s Commercial Crew Acquisition Strategy”. United States House Committee on Science, Space and Technology. 14 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
^ “Congress wary of fully funding commercial crew”. Spaceflightnow. 2012-04-24. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
^ Achenbach, Joel (February 1, 2010). “NASA budget for 2011 eliminates funds for manned lunar missions”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
^ a b “President Barack Obama on Space Exploration in the 21st Century”. Office of the Press Secretary. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
^ a b “Today – President Signs NASA 2010 Authorization Act”. Universetoday.com. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
^ Svitak, Amy (31 March 2011). “Holdren: NASA Law Doesn’t Square with Budgetary Reality”. Space News. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
^ a b S.3729 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010
^ “NASA Announces Design for New Deep Space Exploration System”. NASA. 2011-09-14. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
^ a b c d Bergin, Chris (2012-02-23). “Acronyms to Ascent – SLS managers create development milestone roadmap”. NASA. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
^ Bergin, Chris (2012-03-26). “NASA Advisory Council: Select a Human Exploration Destination ASAP”. NasaSpaceflight (not affiliated with NASA). Retrieved 28 April 2012.
^ “Launch History (Cumulative)”. NASA. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “NASA Experimental Communications Satellites, 1958–1995”. NASA. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “NASA, Explorers program”. NASA. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
^ NASA mission STS-31 (35) Archived 18 August 2011 at WebCite
^ “JPL, Chapter 4. Interplanetary Trajectories”. NASA. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “Missions to Mars”. The Planet Society. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “Missions to Jupiter”. The Planet Society. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “What was the first spacecraft to leave the solar system”. Wikianswers. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “JPL Voyager”. JPL. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “Pioneer 10 spacecraft send last signal”. NASA. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “The golden record”. JPL. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “New Horizon”. JHU/APL. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ “Voyages Beyond the Solar System: The Voyager Interstellar Mission”. NASA. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
^ NASA Staff (November 26, 2011). “Mars Science Laboratory”. NASA. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
^ Associated Press (November 26, 2011). “NASA Launches Super-Size Rover to Mars: ‘Go, Go!'”. New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
^ Kenneth Chang (August 6, 2012). “Curiosity Rover Lands Safely on Mars”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
^ Wilson, Jim (September 15, 2008). “NASA Selects ‘MAVEN’ Mission to Study Mars Atmosphere”. NASA. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ NASA Office of Public Affairs (December 4, 2006). “GLOBAL EXPLORATION STRATEGY AND LUNAR ARCHITECTURE” (PDF). NASA. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ “Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee”. Office of Science and Technology Policy. October 22, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
^ Goddard, Jacqui (February 2, 2010). “Nasa reduced to pipe dreams as Obama cancels Moon flights”. The Times (London). Retrieved May 19, 2010.
^ “NASA Announces Design for New Deep Space Exploration System”. NASA. September 14, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
^ Bergin, Chris (November 6, 2011). “NASA managers approve EFT-1 flight as Orion pushes for orbital debut”. NASASpaceFlight.com (Not affiliated with NASA). Retrieved December 13, 2011.
^ 08.27.2012 First Recorded Voice from Mars
^ “NASA—Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM)”. NASA. July 31, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
^ Rao, S; Van Holsbeeck, L; Musial, JL; Parker, A; Bouffard, JA; Bridge, P; Jackson, M; Dulchavsky, SA (2008). “A pilot study of comprehensive ultrasound education at the Wayne State University School of Medicine: a pioneer year review”. Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 27 (5): 745–9. PMID 18424650.
^ Fincke, E. M.; Padalka, G.; Lee, D.; Van Holsbeeck, M.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Hamilton, D. R.; Martin, D.; Melton, S. L. et al. (2005). “Evaluation of Shoulder Integrity in Space: First Report of Musculoskeletal US on the International Space Station”. Radiology 234 (2): 319–22. doi:10.1148/radiol.2342041680. PMID 15533948.
^ W. Henry Lambright (May 2005). “NASA and the Environment: The Case of Ozone Depletion”. NASA. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
^ Dr. Richard McPeters (2008). “Ozone Hole Monitoring”. NASA. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
^ “NASA Helps Reclaim 15,100 Acres Of San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds”. Space Daily. 2003. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
^ Tina Norwood (2007). “Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation”. NASA. Archived from the original on January 17, 2008. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
^ “Taking a global perspective on Earth’s climate”. Global Climate Change: NASA’s Eyes on the Earth. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011.
^ D. Renné, S. Wilcox, B. Marion, R. George, D. Myers, T. Stoffel, R. Perez, P. Stackhouse, Jr. (2003). “Progress on Updating the 1961–1990 National Solar Radiation Database”. NREL. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
^ EPA (1999). “EPA, DOE, NASA AND USAF Evaluate Innovative Technologies”. EPA. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
^ Benjamin S. Griffin, Gregory S. Martin, Keith W. Lippert, J.D.MacCarthy, Eugene G. Payne, Jr. (2007). “Joint Group on Pollution Prevention”. NASA. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
^ Michael K. Ewert (2006). “Johnson Space Center’s Role in a Sustainable Future”. NASA. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
^ Shouse, Mary (July 9, 2009). “Welcome to NASA Headquarters”. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ “T. Keith Glennan biography”. NASA. August 4, 2006. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
^ Astronaut Scholarship Foundation, Richard H. Truly, retrieved 2011-10-19
^ “President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts” (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. May 23, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ Cabbage, Michael (July 15, 2009). “Bolden and Garver Confirmed by U.S. Senate” (Press release). NASA. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
^ “MSFC_Fact_sheet”. NASA. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
^ Launius, Roger D. “Public opinion polls and perceptions of US human spaceflight”. Division of Space History, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
^ “Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates”. NASA. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
^ “Past, Present, and Future of NASA – U.S. Senate Testimony”. Hayden Planetarium. 07 Mar 2012. Retrieved 04 Dec 2012.
^ “Past, Present, and Future of NASA – U.S. Senate Testimony (Video)”. Hayden Planetarium. 07 Mar 2012. Retrieved 04 Dec 2012.
^ “Why We Fight – Penny4NASA”. Penny4NASA. Retrieved 30 Nov 2012.
Listen to this article (info/dl)
This audio file was created from a revision of the “NASA” article dated September 1, 2005, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: NASA
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
National Aeronautics and Space Act
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
NASA Home Page
NASA Engineering and Safety Center
NASA Photos and NASA Images
NASA Television and NASA podcasts
NASA on Google+
NASA’s channel on YouTube
@NASA on Twitter
NASA Watch, an agency watchdog site
Future NASA Launch Missions
The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
NASA Documents relating to the Space Program, 1953–62, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
Online documents pertaining to the early history and development of NASA, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
NASA records available for research at the National Archives at Atlanta
Historic technical reports from NASA (and other Federal agencies) are available in the Technical Reports Archive and Image Library (TRAIL)
How NASA works on howstuffworks.com
NASA for Kids
NASA History Division
Monthly look at Exploration events
NODIS: NASA Online Directives Information System
NTRS: NASA Technical Reports Server
NASA History and the Challenge of Keeping the Contemporary Past
“Quest: The History of Spaceflight Quarterly”
[show] v t e
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
[show] v t e
[show] v t e
Public sector space agencies
[show] v t e
Research and development agencies of the United States federal government
Categories: NASAGovernment agencies established in 19581958 establishments in the United StatesOrganizations based in Washington, D.C.Government of the United States